Aluminium frame installation technology
Ventilated façade installation technology with the PLANTAS fastening system
1. Mounting brackets
Mounting brackets is probably the most important stage of assembling a ventilated façade system. Correct placement and mounting is essential for a robust ventilated façade system.
1.1. Bracket mounting points must be marked on the façade according to the frame layout presented in the project documentation or according to the installation method indicated for a specific material.
When marking bracket mounting points, it is essential that an appropriate distance is maintained between the points and wall corners, as recommended by the manufacturer of the masonry screws for the specific fastening base and screw type at hand.
Failure to choose a safe recommended distance can result in a crumbling fastening base that can no longer hold the masonry screw in place as it is screwed in.
1.2. Holes should then be drilled with an appropriate sized drill bit (as indicated by the manufacturer of the masonry screw).
The depth of each drill hole must be no less than 10 mm deeper than the length of the masonry screw, so that the dust and debris that remain in the drill hole do not prevent the masonry screw from being inserted to the necessary depth.
1.3. Brackets are mounted onto the wall with thermal insulating washers and masonry screws. (Fig. 2)
The ventilated façade structure should only be constructed by using the specific type of masonry screw that is indicated in the project documentation for the façade installation or in the screw manufacturer's recommendations for the type of base at hand (in those cases that do not require a project documentation).
The washer is used to prevent the formation of a thermal bridge. However, this element is not necessary if there is no layer of thermal insulation.
1.3.1. If a bracket mounting point lies on a horizontal or vertical mortar joint, the bracket should be moved vertically the smallest possible distance, ensuring that no element of masonry is cracked as the screw is drilled in (Fig. 3).
1.3.2. If a bracket mounting point lies on a vertical mortar joint and cannot be moved a minimal distance, then the corner bracket must be mounted facing in the other direction, but maintaining the same distance between brackets (Fig. 3).
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The length of the corner brackets will determine the distance between the cladding elements and the layer of insulation (the ventilated air gap), thus bracket size (Table 1) should be determined based on the thickness of the layer of insulation and the fact that the air gap must be at least 40 mm wide. (Recommendation R40-2 "Designing and constructing walls with air gaps"/“Sienų su oro tarpais projektavimas ir statyba“ issued by the Ministry of the Environment).
|Recommended bracket sizes for different thicknesses of insulating material|
|Diagram||Mark, length||Max. insulation thickness, mm||Function|
|KF060, 60 mm||-||Fixed-joint load-bearing bracket for fastening guide profiles to walls..|
|KF080, 80 mm||50|
|KF100, 100 mm||75|
|KF120, 120 mm||95|
|KF150, 150 mm||125|
|KF180, 180 mm||155|
|KF210, 210 mm||185|
|KF240, 240 mm||215|
|KF270, 270 mm||245|
|KF300, 300 mm||275|
|KL060, 60 mm||-||A light-weight, fixed-joint load-bearing bracket for fastening guide profiles to a sturdy and uniform base that is not affected by larger loads.|
|KL080, 80 mm||50|
|KL100, 100 mm||75|
|KL120, 120 mm||95|
|KL150, 150 mm||125|
|KL180, 180 mm||155|
|KL210, 210 mm||185|
|KL240, 240 mm||215|
|KL270, 270 mm||245|
|KL300, 300 mm||275|
|KP060, 60 mm||-||Flexible-joint supporting bracket for fastening guide profiles to walls.|
|KP080, 80 mm||50|
|KP100, 100 mm||75|
|KP120, 120 mm||95|
|KP150, 150 mm||125|
|KP180, 180 mm||155|
|KP210, 210 mm||185|
|KP240, 240 mm||215|
|KP270, 270 mm||245|
|KP300, 300 mm||275|
2. Installing a protective profile for the ventilated air gap
2.1. The protective profile is installed in areas of the ventilated façade that are left open due to its structural features (e.g., the plinth).
The type of protective profile and the method of installation used will typically vary from project to project (depending on the building's façade design), thus the installation of the protective profile is detailed in the project documentation of each individual project.
2.2. If the protective profile is to be fastened to a thermally insulated wall, it must be installed (in full or in part, depending on type) before insulation work begins (the fastening joint is covered up by the insulation material; see construction detail for vertical section of a plinth).
3. Installing a layer of thermal insulation
The layer of thermal insulation is laid onto the façade once bracket mounting work is complete and the protective profile (if one is used) has been installed.
3.1. The type of insulation material and the thickness of the insulating layer are indicated in the architectural part of the project documentation. The insulation material is fastened to the façade by working up from the bottom, with the first row resting on top of the protective profile (if one is used), and by cutting into the sheets wherever the brackets will protrude.
3.1.1. The thermal insulation panels should be pressed against the surface being insulated.
3.1.2. The panels should be arranged so that their vertical edges are not in complete alignment with each other and no four corners meet at the same point.
3.1.3. There should be no gaps between the insulation panels. Gaps that cannot be avoided must be filled in with an insulating product with the same thermal characteristics.
3.1.4. Mineral wool panels that are used for the purpose of wind protection should cover all the edges of the universal panels and be pressed against them.
3.2. The insulation material is secured to the wall base using pins of a length that can accommodate the thickness of the layer of insulation. Pins are secured in place based on the recommendations of the manufacturer.
The fastening elements used to fix the insulation material in place are indicated in the project documentation for the installation of the façade or in the manufacturer's recommendations (if technical documentation is not required).
4. Installing guide profiles
Guide profile types and their dimensions are indicated in the frame layout scheme of the project documentation or in the installation guide for the fastening system of a specific cladding material.
4.1. The guide profiles of the vertical frame are fastened to the brackets by inserting them into the clips on the bracket face.
4.2. Guide profiles should be levelled so that their façade-side profiles are aligned to the same plane (Fig. 6).
4.3. The guide profiles are fixed to the brackets with stainless steel self-tapping screws.
4-8 self-tapping screws are typically used to fix a guide profile to a fixed-joint bracket (the specific quantity depends on the load it will have to carry).
2 self-tapping screws are used to fix a guide profile to a flexible-joint bracket. In order to allow a certain amount of movement and prevent the deformation of guide profiles due to temperature swings, self-tapping screws must be screwed into the centres of the elliptical holes (Fig. 7)
The guide profiles expand and compress due to temperature swings, and therefore leaving an 8-10 mm gap where their ends meet is crucial when mounting them on to the brackets. (Fig. 8).
5. Fastening cladding elements to the ventilated façade frame
Once the ventilated façade frame has been assembled and installed, cladding elements can be fastened to it. Cladding manufacturers provide recommendations for how the material should be prepared and fastened, however, there are a few general rules that must be adhered to.
5.1. Only the kind of cladding that is indicated in the project design can be fastened to an installed ventilated façade. This includes both cladding type and dimensions.
5.2. The cladding is fastened in alignment with the central vertical axis of the guiding profile.
5.3. Horizontal tolerances for panel dimensions are not recommended because accumulating discrepancies may mean that the anchoring point of certain panels will not fit on the façade-face of the guide profile (Fig. 10).